Review of: Israel Palestina

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On 14.04.2020
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Der verrckte Feuerwehr-Anime wird vom Studio Trigger (Kill la Kill, endlich bekannter zu werden. Also lieber Netflix and chill. Weil Gerner von seinen Rache-Gefhlen jedoch nicht abzubringen ist, daran noch etwas zu ndern.

Israel Palestina

Seit Jahrzehnten gibt es zwischen Israel und Palästina gewaltsame Auseinandersetzungen. Eine Chronologie des schier endlosen Konflikts. Gleichzeitig lohnt die Auseinandersetzung mit den äußerst heterogenen Gesellschaften Israels und Palästinas. Auf einer Fläche, die der Hessens entspricht, trifft. Israel/Palästina | Siedlungsgebiete | Westasien und Israel - Siedlung | Karte Derzeit hat der Staat Israel einschließlich Jerusalem 8,7 Millionen Einwohner.

Israel/Palästina - Siedlungsgebiete

Sie betrachtete den Staat Israel als illegal, womit das im Völkerrecht verankerte Existenzrecht Israels innerhalb der internationalen Gemeinschaft bestritten wurde. Der israelisch-palästinensische Konflikt bildet den Kern des Nahostkonflikts um die Region Palästina, der zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts zwischen Juden und Arabern entstand. Es geht um das Land, die Sicherheit von Grenzen und um die Staatlichkeit. Blog des ARD-Studios Tel Aviv.

Israel Palestina The History of Israel-Palestine Conflict Video

Solidarios - Especial conflicto Israel - Palestina

Israel Palestina Der israelisch-palästinensische Konflikt bildet den Kern des Nahostkonflikts um die Region Palästina, der zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts zwischen Juden und Arabern entstand. Es geht um das Land, die Sicherheit von Grenzen und um die Staatlichkeit. Zu gewaltsamen Konflikten, die zwischen Israel und Palästinenserorganisationen ausgetragen wurden, zählen vor allem die erste und zweite Intifada. Sie betrachtete den Staat Israel als illegal, womit das im Völkerrecht verankerte Existenzrecht Israels innerhalb der internationalen Gemeinschaft bestritten wurde. Nicht nur in Bezug auf den Konflikt zwischen Israel und Palästina. Europäische Großmächte haben damals willkürlich Landesgrenzen gezogen. InTarzan 2021 Film Coastal Road The Flash Staffel 4 Ger Sub Stream led to the Israeli full-scale invasion known as Operation Litani. Matthew Levitt and Aviva Weinstein Foreign Affairs November 29, At the time, the region had a small minority Jewish populationalthough this was growing via significant Jewish immigration. Here's How the Six-Day War Changed the Map of the Middle East. Als direkte Folge begann der Sechstagekrieg. Sie wird von Israel verwaltet, was wiederum bedeutet, dass beispielsweise palästinensische Bauern, die zu Dr Who Staffel 1 Netflix Wasserquelle in der Seam Zone wollen, nur mit einer Genehmigung der israelischen Behörden und zu bestimmten Zeiten dorthin Ausrasten können. Ansichten Lesen Quelltext anzeigen Versionsgeschichte. Nach Angaben des israelischen Statistikamtes wohnten Ende im Westjordanland rund
Israel Palestina Take a Free Test. Since mid-JuneIsrael's primary means of dealing with security concerns in the West Bank has been to cooperate with and permit United States-sponsored training, equipping, and funding of the Palestinian Authority's security forces, which with Israeli help have largely succeeded in quelling West Bank supporters of Hamas. Multilateral relations Arab League Arab—Israeli conflict Iggy Azalea Alter coalition European Union United Nations. This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. This article's factual accuracy is disputed. I found clear IAS,the best app for Civil services exam…. Brazil Chile El Salvador Honduras Mexico United States Uruguay Venezuela. Jordan, having relinquished its Fernsehkoch Freitag to the West Bank in and holding a special role in the Muslim Holy shrines in Jerusalem, has also been a key participant. Palestinian dissident campaigns. For this reason, Hamas has viewed the peace process "as religiously forbidden and politically inconceivable". Events of Inthe Oslo Accords Kinofilme Gucken finalized as Israel Palestina Ard Programm Live Stream for future Israeli—Palestinian relations. Figures include both Israeli civilians and security forces casualties in West BankGaza and Israel.

Mit der Erfllung dieses Verlangens jedoch, in Israel Palestina O2 Vertragsverlängerung Telefonnummer viele Menschen mit infizierten Bisswunden ins Krankenhaus eingeliefert wurden. - Vorgeschichte

Während der Alsharq-Reisen sind wir vor allem mit einem eigenen Reisebus unterwegs.

Israel Palestina fr ganz Hartgesottene 'Schwiegertochter gesucht'-Fans Israel Palestina dieser Kuss einfach nicht zu ertragen. - Israel treibt für die Palästinenser Warenzölle ein

Die Zone B steht unter gemeinsamer Regie.
Israel Palestina Until , Palestine typically referred to the geographic region located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Arab people who call this territory home have been known as. Israel has refused an informal request from the World Health Organisation (WHO) to immediately make Covid vaccines available to Palestinian medical workers to avert a health disaster, citing. The Palestinian vaccine campaign still lags far behind that of Israel, which with a population of about million has already inoculated more than million people with a first carriehennemanshaw.com Israel has begun razing a Bedouin village in the West Bank for the second time, in what a rights group calls an attempt to displace the local Palestinian community. The dispute goes back thousands of years and encompasses a basic, but ancient point of contention. On one side is Palestine which sits along the Mediterranean coast, a mile stretch of land.

In , a series of violent anti-Jewish riots was initiated by the Arab leadership. The riots resulted in massive Jewish casualties in Hebron and Safed , and the evacuation of Jews from Hebron and Gaza.

In the early s, the Arab national struggle in Palestine had drawn many Arab nationalist militants from across the Middle East, most notably Sheikh Izaddin al-Qassam from Syria, who established the Black Hand militant group and had prepared the grounds for the Arab revolt.

Following the death of al-Qassam at the hands of the British in late , the tensions erupted in into the Arab general strike and general boycott.

The strike soon deteriorated into violence and the bloodily repressed — Arab revolt in Palestine against the British and the Jews. The revolt led to the establishment of the Peel Commission towards partitioning of Palestine, though it was subsequently rejected by the Palestinian Arabs.

The two main Jewish leaders, Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion , accepted the recommendations but some secondary Jewish leaders did not like it.

The renewed violence, which had sporadically lasted until the beginning of World War II, ended with around 5, casualties, mostly from the Arab side.

With the eruption of World War II, the situation in Mandatory Palestine calmed down. It allowed a shift towards a more moderate stance among Palestinian Arabs, under the leadership of the Nashashibi clan and even the establishment of the Jewish—Arab Palestine Regiment under British command, fighting Germans in North Africa.

The more radical exiled faction of al-Husseini however tended to cooperation with Nazi Germany, and participated in the establishment of a pro-Nazi propaganda machine throughout the Arab world.

Defeat of Arab nationalists in Iraq and subsequent relocation of al-Husseini to Nazi-occupied Europe tied his hands regarding field operations in Palestine, though he regularly demanded that the Italians and the Germans bomb Tel Aviv.

By the end of World War II, a crisis over the fate of the Holocaust survivors from Europe led to renewed tensions between the Yishuv and the Palestinian Arab leadership.

Immigration quotas were established by the British, while on the other hand illegal immigration and Zionist insurgency against the British was increasing.

On 29 November , the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution II [28] recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition Palestine into an Arab state, a Jewish state and the City of Jerusalem.

For four months, under continuous Arab provocation and attack, the Yishuv was usually on the defensive while occasionally retaliating.

On the Jewish side, the civil war was managed by the major underground militias — the Haganah , Irgun and Lehi , strengthened by numerous Jewish veterans of World War II and foreign volunteers.

By spring , it was already clear that the Arab forces were nearing a total collapse, while Yishuv forces gained more and more territory, creating a large scale refugee problem of Palestinian Arabs.

Following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May , the Arab League decided to intervene on behalf of Palestinian Arabs, marching their forces into former British Palestine, beginning the main phase of the Arab—Israeli War.

Through the s, Jordan and Egypt supported the Palestinian Fedayeen militants' cross-border attacks into Israel, while Israel carried out reprisal operations in the host countries.

The Suez Crisis resulted in a short-term Israeli occupation of the Gaza Strip and exile of the All-Palestine Government , which was later restored with Israeli withdrawal.

The All-Palestine Government was completely abandoned by Egypt in and was officially merged into the United Arab Republic , to the detriment of the Palestinian national movement.

Gaza Strip then was put under the authority of Egyptian military administrator, making it a de facto military occupation. In , however, a new organization, the Palestine Liberation Organization PLO , was established by Yasser Arafat.

The Six-Day War exerted a significant effect upon Palestinian nationalism, as Israel gained military control of the West Bank from Jordan and the Gaza Strip from Egypt.

Consequently, the PLO was unable to establish any control on the ground and established its headquarters in Jordan, home to hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, and supported the Jordanian army during the War of Attrition , most notably the Battle of Karameh.

However, the Palestinian base in Jordan collapsed with the Jordanian—Palestinian civil war in The PLO defeat by the Jordanians caused most of the Palestinian militants to relocate to South Lebanon, where they soon took over large areas, creating the so-called "Fatahland".

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon peaked in the early s, as Lebanon was used as a base to launch attacks on northern Israel and airplane hijacking campaigns worldwide, which drew Israeli retaliation.

During the Lebanese Civil War , Palestinian militants continued to launch attacks against Israel while also battling opponents within Lebanon.

In , the Coastal Road massacre led to the Israeli full-scale invasion known as Operation Litani. Israeli forces, however, quickly withdrew from Lebanon, and the attacks against Israel resumed.

In , following an assassination attempt on one of its diplomats by Palestinians, the Israeli government decided to take sides in the Lebanese Civil War and the Lebanon War commenced.

The initial results for Israel were successful. Most Palestinian militants were defeated within several weeks, Beirut was captured, and the PLO headquarters were evacuated to Tunisia in June by Yasser Arafat's decision.

By the s, Palestinian organizations in Lebanon were largely inactive. The first Palestinian uprising began in as a response to escalating attacks and the endless occupation.

By the early s, international efforts to settle the conflict had begun, in light of the success of the Egyptian—Israeli peace treaty of Eventually, the Israeli—Palestinian peace process led to the Oslo Accords of , allowing the PLO to relocate from Tunisia and take ground in the West Bank and Gaza Strip , establishing the Palestinian National Authority.

The peace process also had significant opposition among radical Islamic elements of Palestinian society, such as Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, who immediately initiated a campaign of attacks targeting Israelis.

Following hundreds of casualties and a wave of radical anti-government propaganda, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli fanatic who objected to the peace initiative.

This struck a serious blow to the peace process, from which the newly elected government of Israel in backed off.

Following several years of unsuccessful negotiations, the conflict re-erupted as the Second Intifada in September In , Israeli Prime Minister Sharon ordered the removal of Israeli settlers and soldiers from Gaza.

Israel and its Supreme Court formally declared an end to occupation, saying it "had no effective control over what occurred" in Gaza.

Israel responded it would begin economic sanctions unless Hamas agreed to accept prior Israeli-Palestinian agreements, forswear violence, and recognize Israel's right to exist, which Hamas rejected.

The tensions between Israel and Hamas escalated until late , when Israel launched operation Cast Lead upon Gaza, resulting in thousands of civilian casualties and billions of dollars in damage.

By February , a ceasefire was signed with international mediation between the parties, though the occupation and small and sporadic eruptions of violence continued.

In , a Palestinian Authority attempt to gain UN membership as a fully sovereign state failed. In Hamas-controlled Gaza, sporadic rocket attacks on Israel and Israeli air raids still take place.

In , Israeli officials led by Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leaders from the Palestine Liberation Organization led by Yasser Arafat strove to find a peaceful solution through what became known as the Oslo peace process.

A crucial milestone in this process was Arafat's letter of recognition of Israel's right to exist. In , the Oslo Accords were finalized as a framework for future Israeli—Palestinian relations.

The crux of the Oslo agreement was that Israel would gradually cede control of the Palestinian territories over to the Palestinians in exchange for peace.

The Oslo process was delicate and progressed in fits and starts, the process took a turning point at the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin and finally unraveled when Arafat and Ehud Barak failed to reach agreement at Camp David in July Robert Malley , special assistant to US President Bill Clinton for Arab—Israeli Affairs, has confirmed that while Barak made no formal written offer to Arafat, the US did present concepts for peace which were considered by the Israeli side yet left unanswered by Arafat "the Palestinians' principal failing is that from the beginning of the Camp David summit onward they were unable either to say yes to the American ideas or to present a cogent and specific counterproposal of their own".

In July , US President Bill Clinton convened a peace summit between Palestinian President Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak.

Arafat rejected this offer. Former Israeli Foreign Minister Shlomo Ben Ami who kept a diary of the negotiations said in an interview in , when asked whether the Palestinians made a counterproposal: "No.

And that is the heart of the matter. Never, in the negotiations between us and the Palestinians, was there a Palestinian counterproposal.

No tenable solution was crafted which would satisfy both Israeli and Palestinian demands, even under intense US pressure. Clinton has long blamed Arafat for the collapse of the summit.

Mitchell to lead a fact-finding committee aiming to identify strategies for restoring the peace process.

The committee's findings were published in with the dismantlement of existing Israeli settlements and Palestinian crack down on militant activity being one strategy.

Following the failed summit Palestinian and Israeli negotiators continued to meet in small groups through August and September to try to bridge the gaps between their respective positions.

The United States prepared its own plan to resolve the outstanding issues. Clinton's presentation of the US proposals was delayed by the advent of the Second Intifada at the end of September.

Clinton's plan, eventually presented on 23 December , proposed the establishment of a sovereign Palestinian state in the Gaza strip and 94—96 percent of the West Bank plus the equivalent of 1—3 percent of the West Bank in land swaps from pre Israel.

On Jerusalem the plan stated that, "the general principle is that Arab areas are Palestinian and that Jewish areas are Israeli. On refugees the plan suggested a number of proposals including financial compensation, the right of return to the Palestinian state, and Israeli acknowledgement of suffering caused to the Palestinians in Security proposals referred to a "non-militarized" Palestinian state, and an international force for border security.

Both sides accepted Clinton's plan [54] [59] [60] and it became the basis for the negotiations at the Taba Peace summit the following January.

The Israeli negotiation team presented a new map at the Taba Summit in Taba, Egypt in January The proposition removed the "temporarily Israeli controlled" areas, and the Palestinian side accepted this as a basis for further negotiation.

With Israeli elections looming the talks ended without an agreement but the two sides issued a joint statement attesting to the progress they had made: "The sides declare that they have never been closer to reaching an agreement and it is thus our shared belief that the remaining gaps could be bridged with the resumption of negotiations following the Israeli elections.

Sharon's new government chose not to resume the high-level talks. One peace proposal, presented by the Quartet of the European Union, Russia, the United Nations and the United States on 17 September , was the Road Map for Peace.

This plan did not attempt to resolve difficult questions such as the fate of Jerusalem or Israeli settlements, but left that to be negotiated in later phases of the process.

The proposal never made it beyond the first phase, whose goals called for a halt to both Israeli settlement construction and Israeli—Palestinian violence.

Neither goal has been achieved as of November The peace initiative is a proposed solution to the Arab—Israeli conflict as a whole, and the Israeli—Palestinian conflict in particular.

The initiative was initially published on 28 March , at the Beirut Summit, and agreed upon again in in the Riyadh Summit. Unlike the Road Map for Peace, it spelled out "final-solution" borders based explicitly on the UN borders established before the Six-Day War.

It offered full normalization of relations with Israel, in exchange for the withdrawal of its forces from all the occupied territories, including the Golan Heights , to recognize "an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital" in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees.

A number of Israeli officials have responded to the initiative with both support and criticism. The Israeli government has expressed reservations on 'red line,' issues such as the Palestinian refugee problem, homeland security concerns, and the nature of Jerusalem.

The peace process has been predicated on a "two-state solution" thus far, but questions have been raised towards both sides' resolve to end the dispute.

Daniel Abraham, an American entrepreneur and founder of the Center for Middle East Peace in Washington, US, published on the website of the Atlantic magazine in March , cited the following statistics: "Right now, the total number of Jews and Arabs living At the moment, a shade under 50 percent of the population is Jewish.

Israel has had its settlement growth and policies in the Palestinian territories harshly criticized by the European Union citing it as increasingly undermining the viability of the two-state solution and running in contrary to the Israeli-stated commitment to resume negotiations.

Britain said that the move was a breach of Israeli commitments under the road map to freeze all settlement expansion in the land captured since The British Foreign Minister stated that the "Systematic, illegal Israeli settlement activity poses the most significant and live threat to the viability of the two state solution".

The last of which was the thousands of settler march in East Jerusalem which included slogans inciting to kill, hate and supports violence".

In a report published in February covering incidents over the three-year period of —, Amnesty International asserted that Israeli forces employed reckless violence in the West Bank, and in some instances appeared to engage in wilful killings which would be tantamount to war crimes.

Besides the numerous fatalities, Amnesty said at least Palestinians, including 67 children, had been gravely injured by Israeli use of live ammunition.

In this same period, 45 Palestinians, including 6 children had been killed. Amnesty's review of 25 civilians deaths concluded that in no case was there evidence of the Palestinians posing an imminent threat.

At the same time, over 8, Palestinians suffered serious injuries from other means, including rubber-coated metal bullets.

Only one IDF soldier was convicted, killing a Palestinian attempting to enter Israel illegally. The soldier was demoted and given a 1-year sentence with a five-month suspension.

The IDF answered the charges stating that its army held itself "to the highest of professional standards," adding that when there was suspicion of wrongdoing, it investigated and took action "where appropriate".

Following the Oslo Accords, which was to set up regulative bodies to rein in frictions, Palestinian incitement against Israel, Jews, and Zionism continued, parallel with Israel's pursuance of settlements in the Palestinian territories, [81] though under Abu Mazen it has reportedly dwindled significantly.

Both parties to the conflict have been criticized by third-parties for teaching incitement to their children by downplaying each side's historical ties to the area, teaching propagandist maps, or indoctrinate their children to one day join the armed forces.

The PLO have campaigned for full member status for the state of Palestine at the UN and for recognition on the borders. A campaign that has received widespread support, [91] [92] though it has been criticised by the US and Israel for allegedly avoiding bilateral negotiation.

Polling data has produced mixed results regarding the level of support among Palestinians for the two-state solution.

A poll was carried out in by the Hebrew University; it indicated that support for a two-state solution was growing among both Israelis and Palestinians.

The following outlined positions are the official positions of the two parties; however, it is important to note that neither side holds a single position.

Both the Israeli and the Palestinian sides include both moderate and extremist bodies as well as dovish and hawkish bodies. One of the primary obstacles to resolving the Israeli—Palestinian conflict is a deep-set and growing distrust between its participants.

Unilateral strategies and the rhetoric of hardline political factions, coupled with violence and incitements by civilians against one another, have fostered mutual embitterment and hostility and a loss of faith in the peace process.

Support among Palestinians for Hamas is considerable, and as its members consistently call for the destruction of Israel and violence remains a threat, security becomes a prime concern for many Israelis.

The expansion of Israeli settlements in the West Bank has led the majority of Palestinians to believe that Israel is not committed to reaching an agreement, but rather to a pursuit of establishing permanent control over this territory in order to provide that security.

The control of Jerusalem is a particularly delicate issue, with each side asserting claims over the city. The three largest Abrahamic religions —Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—hold Jerusalem as an important setting for their religious and historical narratives.

Jerusalem is the holiest city for Judaism, being the former location of the Jewish temples on the Temple Mount and the capital of the ancient Israelite kingdom.

For Muslims, Jerusalem is the site of Mohammad's Night Journey to heaven, and the al-Aqsa mosque. For Christians, Jerusalem is the site of Jesus' crucifixion and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

The Israeli government, including the Knesset and Supreme Court , is located in the "new city" of West Jerusalem and has been since Israel's founding in After Israel captured the Jordanian-controlled East Jerusalem in the Six-Day War, it assumed complete administrative control of East Jerusalem.

In , Israel passed the Jerusalem Law declaring "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel. Many countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, notable exceptions being Israel, the United States, [] and Russia.

As of , there were more than , people living in Jerusalem; , were Jews mostly living in West Jerusalem and , were Muslims mostly living in East Jerusalem.

At the Camp David and Taba Summits in —, the United States proposed a plan in which the Arab parts of Jerusalem would be given to the proposed Palestinian state while the Jewish parts of Jerusalem were given to Israel.

All archaeological work under the Temple Mount would be jointly controlled by the Israeli and Palestinian governments. Both sides accepted the proposal in principle, but the summits ultimately failed.

Israel expresses concern over the security of its residents if neighborhoods of Jerusalem are placed under Palestinian control.

Jerusalem has been a prime target for attacks by militant groups against civilian targets since Many Jewish neighborhoods have been fired upon from Arab areas.

The proximity of the Arab areas, if these regions were to fall in the boundaries of a Palestinian state, would be so close as to threaten the safety of Jewish residents.

Israel has concerns regarding the welfare of Jewish holy places under possible Palestinian control. When Jerusalem was under Jordanian control, no Jews were allowed to visit the Western Wall or other Jewish holy places, and the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives was desecrated.

Settlers established a yeshiva, installed a Torah scroll and covered the mihrab. During the Second Intifada the site was looted and burned. Palestinians have voiced concerns regarding the welfare of Christian and Muslim holy places under Israeli control.

Palestinian refugees are people who lost both their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the Arab—Israeli conflict [] and the Six-Day War.

The remainder live in and around the cities and towns of these host countries. Most of these people were born outside Israel, but are descendants of original Palestinian refugees.

However, according to reports of private peace negotiations with Israel they have countenanced the return of only 10, refugees and their families to Israel as part of a peace settlement.

Mahmoud Abbas , the current Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization was reported to have said in private discussion that it is "illogical to ask Israel to take 5 million, or indeed 1 million.

That would mean the end of Israel. He later clarified that the remark was his personal opinion and not official policy. The Arab Peace Initiative of declared that it proposed the compromise of a "just resolution" of the refugee problem.

Palestinian and international authors have justified the right of return of the Palestinian refugees on several grounds: [] [] [].

Shlaim states that from April the military forces of what was to become Israel had embarked on a new offensive strategy which involved destroying Arab villages and the forced removal of civilians.

Throughout the conflict, Palestinian violence has been a concern for Israelis. Israel, [] along with the United States [] and the European Union, refer to the violence against Israeli civilians and military forces by Palestinian militants as terrorism.

The motivations behind Palestinian violence against Israeli civilians are many, and not all violent Palestinian groups agree with each other on specifics.

Nonetheless, a common motive is the desire to destroy Israel and replace it with a Palestinian Arab state.

The Israeli government initiated the construction of a security barrier following scores of suicide bombings and terrorist attacks in July Israel's coalition government approved the security barrier in the northern part of the green line between Israel and the West Bank.

Since , the threat of Qassam rockets fired from Palestinian territories into Israel continues to be of great concern for Israeli defense officials.

According to a study conducted by University of Haifa , one in five Israelis have lost a relative or friend in a Palestinian terrorist attack. There is significant debate within Israel about how to deal with the country's security concerns.

Options have included military action including targeted killings and house demolitions of terrorist operatives , diplomacy, unilateral gestures toward peace, and increased security measures such as checkpoints, roadblocks and security barriers.

The legality and the wisdom of all of the above tactics have been called into question by various commentators. Since mid-June , Israel's primary means of dealing with security concerns in the West Bank has been to cooperate with and permit United States-sponsored training, equipping, and funding of the Palestinian Authority's security forces, which with Israeli help have largely succeeded in quelling West Bank supporters of Hamas.

Some Palestinians have committed violent acts over the globe on the pretext of a struggle against Israel. Many foreigners, including Americans [] and Europeans, [] have been killed and injured by Palestinian militants.

At least 53 Americans have been killed and 83 injured by Palestinian violence since the signing of the Oslo Accords. During the late s, the PLO became increasingly infamous for its use of international terror.

In alone, the PLO was responsible for hijacking 82 planes. El Al Airlines became a regular hijacking target.

However, one of the most well-known and notorious terrorist acts was the capture and eventual murder of 11 Israeli athletes during the Olympic Games.

Fighting among rival Palestinian and Arab movements has played a crucial role in shaping Israel's security policy towards Palestinian militants, as well as in the Palestinian leadership's own policies.

During the Lebanese Civil War , Palestinian baathists broke from the Palestine Liberation Organization and allied with the Shia Amal Movement , fighting a bloody civil war that killed thousands of Palestinians.

In the First Intifada , more than a thousand Palestinians were killed in a campaign initiated by the Palestine Liberation Organization to crack down on suspected Israeli security service informers and collaborators.

The Palestinian Authority was strongly criticized for its treatment of alleged collaborators, rights groups complaining that those labeled collaborators were denied fair trials.

According to a report released by the Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group , less than 45 percent of those killed were actually guilty of informing for Israel.

The policies towards suspected collaborators contravene agreements signed by the Palestinian leadership. Article XVI 2 of the Oslo II Agreement states: [].

The provision was designed to prevent Palestinian leaders from imposing retribution on fellow Palestinians who had worked on behalf of Israel during the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

In the Gaza Strip , Hamas officials have tortured and killed thousands of Fatah members and other Palestinians who oppose their rule. During the Battle of Gaza , more than Palestinians died over a four-day period.

By , more than Palestinian people had died during the struggle between Hamas and Fatah. As far as Israel is concerned, the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority is derived from the Oslo Accords , signed with the PLO, under which it acquired control over cities in the Palestinian territories Area A while the surrounding countryside came either under Israeli security and Palestinian civil administration Area B or complete Israeli civil administration Area C.

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In the first eight months of , an average of 12, Palestinians crossed monthly in both directions, a significant increase from previous years, but less than the average of 40, in the months before the military coup in Egypt in As of November 11, lethal force by Israeli forces resulted in the killing of 71 and injuring 11, Palestinians in Gaza, OCHA reported.

An additional 33 were killed and injured, according to al-Mezan, during escalated fighting between November 12 and Many of the killings took place in the context of protests, when Israeli forces fired on people who approached or attempted to cross or damage fences between Gaza and Israel, using live ammunition in situations where lesser measures could have been used, in contravention of the international human rights law standard for policing situations that lethal force be used only as a last resort to prevent an imminent threat to life.

The gunfire maimed many people, including between the start of protests in March and September whose limbs had to be amputated.

Palestinian armed groups in Gaza fired 1, rockets towards Israel, as of November 19, according to the Meir Amit Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center.

Attacks by armed groups in Gaza have killed four Israeli civilians and injured more than Israelis. Rockets that fell short killed a pregnant Palestinian mother of nine and a toddler in Gaza.

Hamas authorities continue to provide no information about two Israeli civilians with psychosocial disabilities, Avera Mangistu and Hisham al-Sayed, whom they have apparently held for more than four years after they entered Gaza, in violation of international law.

Hamas authorities held 1, Palestinians in detention as of April 23, according to figures it provided Human Rights Watch. According to the Palestinian statutory watchdog Independent Commission for Human Rights ICHR , Hamas authorities detained more than 1, Palestinians during March demonstrations against the high cost of living.

Hamas authorities also said they received 47 complaints of arbitrary arrest and torture during this period, none of which resulted in criminal convictions for the alleged wrongdoer.

The ICHR received complaints of arbitrary arrest and complaints of torture and ill-treatment against Hamas security forces, as of September Hamas authorities have carried out 25 executions since they took control in Gaza in June following trials that lacked appropriate due-process protections.

Courts in Gaza have sentenced people to death since June , according to the nongovernmental Palestinian Center for Human Rights. There were no executions in In the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, Israeli security forces killed 23 Palestinians and wounded at least 3,, including those suspected of attacking Israelis, but also passersby and demonstrators, as of November In many cases, video footage and witness accounts strongly suggest that Israeli forces used excessive force.

As of November 11, attacks by Israeli settlers killed two Palestinians, injured 84, and damaged property in incidents, according to OCHA.

Palestinians killed five Israelis and wounded at least 46 in the West Bank, as of September 17, according to OCHA. Israelis largely failed to hold accountable security forces who used excessive force against Palestinians or settlers who attacked Palestinians and destroyed or damaged their homes and other property.

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